A 13-year-old Julius Malema wielding a gun probably best encapsulates the early militancy of the Economic Freedom Fighters’ (EFF) leader. 

Testifying in April 2011 during his hate speech trial, which was brought against him by lobby groups AfriForum and the Transvaal Agricultural Union over the EFF president’s insistence on singing the old struggle song, Dubula ibhunu (Shoot the boer), Malema spoke of how violence was part of his early political education. 

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